With focusing on eco-friendly concepts, electric cars have more demand all around the world. Because they have powered by charged batteries with zero-emission. All-electric vehicles use lithium-ion batteries as energy storage systems. Usually, most companies provide a warranty of 60,000 to 150,000 miles for three to eight years for the battery.
These batteries currently use for portable devices like laptops and cellphones since they use a high energy per unit mass. Other than this, lithium-ion batteries have high power to weight ratio, high-temperature performance, and low self-discharge, and high energy efficiency. Most of the equipment in this battery is recyclable. But the main problem is the cost of material recovery is high. Now various researches are doing on reducing the value of this and extending the life of this battery.
Electric car producing company called Tesla plans to introduce a long-life battery with low cost in China end of this year or early next year. This battery has designed to last for 1.2 miles (2 million kilometers) of use and plan to sell at the same price or lesser price than a gasoline vehicle. The lifespan of this battery will be 16 years. The company is planning to supply this battery for Tesla’s Model 3 cars in February for two years.
Extending the lifespan can be a more advanced thing because the pack can reuse in the second vehicle. This will reduce the cost of using an electric car. In the future, there will be a massive expansion of electric vehicles, and the capability of connecting and sharing power also get high. The main goal of Tesla is to achieve the status of a power company by competing with traditional energy providers by introducing this new extended life battery at a low cost.
This new invention with Tesla’s strategy has developed jointly with Contemporary Amperex Technology in China. Tesla Company develops this technology with the collaboration of the academic battery experts in the country.
A new battery with high energy density and storage capacity will increase the latest introductions to the market by Tesla. And also, it will lead to a massive expansion of the markets in North America.
The technology of New Battery
New batteries that come from Tesla will use innovations related to low-cobalt and cobalt-free batteries. They will also become more concerned about the usage of chemical additives, materials, and coatings since they cause a reduction of internal stress. Apart from that, they will enable batteries to store more energy for an extended period.
This company tries to recycle and recover the expensive metal like nickel, cobalt, and lithium through its Redwood material affiliate. And also work on ‘second life’ of the electric vehicle batteries in the grid storage system.
Initially, Tesla has planned to work with CATL to take their lithium iron phosphate batteries without any usage of cobalt that considers as the most expensive metal in electric vehicle batteries. CATL has developed a less expensive system of packaging battery cells more straightforwardly. It named a cell-to-pack system, and it eliminates the intermediate step of bundling cells. Tesla also expects to use this technology to reduce battery weight and cost.
CATL plans to supply improved long-life battery to Tesla in China nest year. This battery contains improved long-life nickel-manganese-cobalt battery, which has the cathode with 50% nickel and 20% cobalt.
Most of the technical developments in battery chemistry made by Tesla and CATL have originated in a small research lab at the Dalhousie University of Halifax in Nova Scotia. This lab has operated since 1997 by Jeff Dahn, a pioneer in the development of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles and grid storage.
Future batteries for Electric Vehicles.
Cobalt free batteries for electric vehicles.
Most of the batteries in an electric vehicle have made from cobalt, which considers as a rare earth material. Even though this battery helps in reducing the emission, the usage of rare material also a problem for the environment. SVOLT, based in Changzhou, China, has manufactured cobalt-free batteries for electric vehicles. Apart from environmental protection, this battery has a high energy density, which ranges up to 800km (500miles) for electric cars. And also, it has increased life span and safety.
Silicon anode lithium-ion battery
Researchers at the University of Eastern Finland have invented a method to produce hybrid anode from mesoporous silicon microparticles and carbon nanotubes. This development aims to overcome the problem of unstable silicon in lithium-ion batteries. And ultimately, developers target to replace graphite as the anode in batteries and use silicon. The most important thing is that silicon has ten times of capacity than others, so this will improve the battery’s performance. This silicon material is a hybrid material and can produce sustainably from barley husk ash.
This battery doesn’t need lithium. Instead of that, Japanese scientists have developed a new battery that can use sodium instead of lithium. This will be more environmentally friendly since sodium is one of the most common materials globally, which can easily find not like rare lithium. And also, these batteries are seven times more efficient than other conventional batteries. This will be a cheaper alternative to the lithium-ion battery since this can make from salt, which considers as the sixth common element on the planet. This sodium-ion battery will commercialize in the next ten years for both cars and smartphones.
Aluminum air battery.
This battery can give 100 miles drive for the car from a single battery charge. The technology of this battery is that an aluminum-air battery uses oxygen from the air to fill its cathode. This also makes lighter the battery than a lithium-ion battery and gives the car a far greater range.
These are some other battery types that may introduce soon to the electric vehicle market. Since electric cars are developing industry, and the battery is the main component of these cars like fuel to other vehicles, various technologies will introduce by researchers and multiple companies.
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